Pioneered by architects in the commercial property sector, glass reinforced concrete (GRC) is finally showing off its creative credentials within the European housing market. Our director James Butler, looks at the material’s rise to prominence among top-end house builders.
The UK’s first major use of GRC was probably an office block near to St
Paul’s in the city of London. Originally the UK headquarters of Crédit Lyonnais,
the eye catching, four story office block was designed by architects Whinney
Son & Austen Hall. The building was refurbished in 2013, when it was granted
grade II listed status, due to its ‘value and contribution to the built environment’.
Around a decade before this redevelopment, the building (which was then
over 25 years old) underwent various safety tests, with special attention paid
to the GRC material and its integrity. Building engineers concluded that the
external concrete cladding was in such good condition that its lifespan was effectively
indefinite. GRC had arrived – and architects soon started considering it as an
ideal replacement for the much heavier pre-cast concrete.
Since then, the lightweight material has taken the commercial construction sector by storm, with many iconic buildings in the UK using GRC instead of traditional pre-cast, brickwork, rendering or stonework. Exact figures are hard to come by, but most market studies* suggest that GRC has been on an upward trajectory in the UK – growing year on year by more than 10% in recent years.
What is GRC?
Clearly, architects and builders alike enjoy working with GRC thanks to its
ease of handling (due to its lightweight properties), its good environmental credentials
(less material used) and the impressive creative possibilities it brings to
projects. But what exactly is this material?
Referred to as either GRC or glass-fibre reinforced concrete (GFRC), the material
comprises high-strength, alkali-resistant glass fibres which are embedded into
a concrete matrix. These fibres act as the main load-carrying component, while
the surrounding matrix keeps them in position, and transfers load between the
fibres. Both fibres and matrix are good at retaining their physical and
chemical identities, combining these properties to create a high-performance
This differs from traditional pre-cast concrete, which uses steel as the
main load carrying element. While this works well in the medium term, we all
know that steel has a tendency to corrode, leading to potential structural
issues within a couple of decades.
GRC is usually manufactured in thin sections, by machine-spraying an
enriched grade of cement and aggregate mix with glass fibres dispersed
throughout. These fibres serve a similar purpose to steel rebar in reinforced
concrete. The big difference being that fibres do not rust.
A relatively recent innovation is the use of glass fibre mesh to reinforce the concrete. This method achieves the same structural strength as the traditional, sprinkled glass fibre system, but enables the GRC to be much thinner – and lighter. While the older method requires the sprayed GRC to be between 40mm to 100mm thick, the mesh alternative uses a much thinner, lighter layer of GRC of only 13mm. What’s more, this thinner GRC system still reaches the highest testing level for impact resistance.
Key benefits of GRC
GRC panels are typically used to create a lightweight cladding system and
can be made to look almost identical to natural stone or even wood.
Installation is easier and more cost-effective due to the lower weight of the
panels, which is 75-80% lighter than pre-cast steel reinforced concrete cladding.
Given the growing importance of sustainability within housing, this point is becoming more important. Recent tests show that GRC is now being seen as an energy efficient building material which is capable of achieving a BREEAM A+ material rating.
Let’s get creative!
Increasingly, we are seeing architects and designers taking the experience
they have gained from large commercial developments – such as public buildings,
office blocks and universities – and applying this creativity to private housing.
GRC panels can be created to replicate complex profiles, giving the appearance
of much heavier and expensive stonework. These panels generally take a ribbed
or sandwich form and provide exceptional durability, fire resistance, weather
resistance, and sound insulation properties.
Indeed, given the repercussions of the Grenfell Tower fire, architects
and developers are now taking a ‘belt and braces’ approach to safety,
increasingly relying on GRC to contribute to a non-flammable A1 fire rating for
In the UK, we work closely with Rieder, the award-winning Austrian manufacturer
of GRC. Certainly, in the UK we have plenty of excellent examples of this
material being used to provide stunning facades on stand-out commercial developments.
Recent projects include Heath Lodge homes in Ealing, London and modern
apartments in the village of Crowthorne, Berkshire.
Other projects recently completed on mainland Europe demonstrate the huge,
as yet, untapped potential for this material within the house building sector
here in the UK.
Below are a few examples of private developments that really show what
can be achieved with GRC.
- Villas in Grundwald, Germany – The
juxtaposition of these bold colours and shapes creates a strong architectural
statement on the south western side of Munich. Designed by architect Titus
Bernhard, these two striking family homes use Reider öko skin slat wall panels.
- Alpine spa in Austria – GRC can be
used to create a more natural effect, as seen with this garden spa room in
Maishofen, Austria. This innovative use of tough GRC creates a hardwood effect,
with none of the maintenance or treatments required for tree products.
- Family home in Austria – This unusual
application of GRC shows how it can be used internally to make a strong design statement.
Here, GRC is used to create a central piece of furniture that divides the room.
Glass fibre concrete of various colours was used for the chimney paneling and
the kitchen worktop.
- Bridge House in Muskoka, Canada – For
the facade of this exquisite building, the architects at +VG used öko skin
slats in silver grey. The building is harmoniously integrated into its
surroundings within a pine forest and next to a lake.
- Affordable housing in King’s Cross
conservation area, London – This award-winning project from the architects at
Jestico & Whiles has space for 156 affordable and sustainable houses in a
nature conservation area. Climbing plants and green roofs help the buildings to
blend harmoniously into the surrounding landscape. öko skin slats in a special
colour were used for the facade.
With well-established examples such as the Credit Lyonnais building in St
Pauls, GRC has proven its credentials as a hardwearing building façade. More
recently, innovations in its design have seen it become far more lightweight – reducing
the amount of material used in the manufacturing process and facilitating far
easier panel placement during the construction phase.
With an almost endless range of natural colours and textures, GRC enables
architects and designers to fully explore their creativity. Certainly, the trend
towards sustainable, natural buildings is a huge influence within modern
housing – and the new generation of lightweight GRC is definitely a key building
block of this movement.